Image From: The Self-Reinforcing Illusion — The Negative Psychologist

I Introduction

If determinism is true, then free will, I will argue, is an illusion. This is because the notion of free will depends on our ability to have done otherwise, and that what we mean when we say we could have done otherwise further depends on the view we have of our ‘selves’. Though as will emerge, there seems to be conflicting attitudes to what this even means. Given this, the salience of my argument really depends on our attitude toward free will. But I will explore whether we have good reason to think these attitudes are warranted, and…

image from: A Machiavellian Opera for Trump-Era Issues of Truth and Lies — The New York Times (

The strategies advocated by Niccolò Machiavelli need not only apply to rulers, political affairs and war. There is at the bottom of all success, a way by which it is seized and maintained, either by that of our own hands, or that of chance. Understood broadly, it is these central themes that occur within ‘The Prince’ that I wish to discuss, namely, ‘Virtue’, which I will describe generally as ability or prowess, and ‘Fortune’, characterised by luck or chance. …


Sussex University. Philosophy.

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